Escobar mobile malware targets 190 banking and financial apps, steals 2FA codes


A new Android mobile malware dubbed Escobar has hit the cybercrime underground market. Read more about it and see how to protect yourself from this threat.

Image: Getty Images/iStockphoto/Kirill_Savenko

Mobile malware is becoming increasingly powerful against banking and financial applications, especially on Android operating systems. Now, research from Cyble reveals that a new version of the Aberebot mobile malware, dubbed Escobar, has been released.

A version of this malware was found in the wild, impersonating McAfee by using the brand in the filename McAfee9412.apk and also using McAfee’s logo as a lure (Figure A). This piece of code can steal nearly everything from the phone it infects, including multi-authentication codes from Google Authenticator.

Figure A

Escobar figure A.
First report about Escobar mobile malware. Source: Twitter

An expensive investment for cybercriminals, or so it seems

Cyble Research Labs exposed an offer from the developer behind Escobar posted in the dark web, showing that it is currently possible to rent it for $3,000 USD per month — and once it will not be beta anymore, it will grow to $5,000 USD per month. The developer insists on the beta aspect and the possibility of bugs, so they’re renting it to only five customers (Figure B).

Figure B

Escobar figure b.
Escobar malware developer advertises for the product. Source: Cyble

This is an interesting business model, as the developer can have people try, run and use the malware and provide possible bug feedback, while they still make money out of it. Seeing the price for the beta version, one might expect customers of this malware to be experienced cybercriminals who trust their ability to monetize the malware quickly.

The infection vector is not exposed by the developer. Would it be directly available via a legitimate application store, we’d expect the cybercriminal to write about it, since it would raise the malwares value. Cyble mentions that according to its research, “these types of malware are only distributed via sources other than Google Play Store.”

The previous version of the malware, dubbed Aberebot, first appeared mid-2021 and has already targeted more than 140 financial entities in 18 countries, showing that the development of this malware is active.

SEE: Password breach: Why pop culture and passwords don’t mix (free PDF) (TechRepublic)

Escobar functionalities

On an interesting note, the developer writes about it: “The malware doesn’t work on Xiaomi MIUI 11 and higher as UI won’t let background services to launch activities (which is how injections work)!”

As mentioned, the version of Escobar found in the wild seem to impersonate McAfee (Figure C).

Figure C

Escobar figure c.
The malware uses McAfee’s logo and brand name. Source: Cyble

The malware needs 25 different permissions from the user, of which it currently abuses 15. It can:

  • Collect device location
  • Collect contact data (phone numbers, email addresses)
  • Collect SMSes
  • Send SMSes to a specific phone number or to all the contacts
  • Collect call logs
  • Steal application key logs
  • Steal media files
  • Record audio
  • Use VNC viewer to remotely control the infected device
  • Take pictures
  • Inject URLs
  • Install/uninstall other apps
  • Steal Google Authenticator codes
  • Delete itself

All the stolen and collected information is sent directly to a command and control server.

Financially oriented malware

Like other banking Trojans, Escobar overlays fake login forms on the phone’s screen to trick the user into providing their credentials for e-banking applications or other financially oriented websites.

One particular aspect of this malware that makes it fearsome is that it also steals Google Authenticator codes, which opens new fraud possibilities for the attacker using the malware and makes it possible to bypass 2FA (two-factor authentication).

Should the phone’s user use SMS or Google Authenticator as a 2FA method, the attacker could bypass both.

SEE: Google Chrome: Security and UI tips you need to know (TechRepublic Premium)

How to prevent malware infection

To protect from mobile malware, it is important to:

  • Install comprehensive security applications on your device to protect it.
  • Avoid clicking on any link that arrives on your mobile phone, no matter what application it uses, if it comes from an unknown source.
  • Avoid unknown application
  • Never download applications from third parties or untrusted sources.
  • Check permissions when installing any application. Applications should ask permissions only for necessary APIs. Be extra cautious with applications asking for SMS-handling privileges.
  • Be very cautious with applications requesting updates immediately after their installation. An application that is downloaded from the Play Store is supposed to be the latest version. If the app asks for update permission at the first run, immediately after its installation, it is suspicious and might be a sign of malware trying to download more functionalities.
  • Enable 2FA. If possible, use Google Authenticator or SMS on another device than the one used for any financial action. That device needs to be safe from malware. This way, even with the stolen credentials in hand, an attacker will not be able to bypass the 2FA request.

Disclosure: I work for Trend Micro, but the views expressed in this article are mine.





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